Preprint / Version 1

Investigating the Role of the Fibonacci Sequence Towards an Evolutionary Advantage in Plants




Fibonacci, Lifespan, Cross-Pollination, Self-Pollination, Hardiness, Tolerance, Resilience, Genetic Variation, Resistance, Environment


The Fibonacci sequence is a pattern commonly found in nature, especially in plants. A popular example of the Fibonacci sequence observed in nature is with lilies, which are well known for having 3 petals. The frequency of this mathematical series in nature poses a question of whether following the Fibonacci sequence plays a part in plants’ survival. My general hypothesis is that the Fibonacci sequence doesn’t influence survival and growth of plants. However, I am hoping to find trends supporting advantages that come with following the Fibonacci sequence. Disproving my hypothesis would lead to suggestions that following the Fibonacci sequence is linked to increased survivability rates. The Fibonacci sequence is an interesting concept that is widely studied throughout the world, but not enough research has been conducted into applying this concept on plants, specifically in terms of survival. Therefore, this paper collects evidence that can provide initial connections between plant development and displaying the Fibonacci sequence. 

This hypothesis was then disproven by data comparing plants that follow the Fibonacci sequence (Fib) and those that do not (non-Fib) in three different aspects, lifespan, attraction of pollinators, and tolerance to weather. We compare specific species of plants from Fib and Non-Fib in terms of lifespan length, pollinator attraction, and tolerance to a variety of conditions. The Fibonacci sequence was said to allow plants to use their resources efficiently. This paper would support this idea by collecting data about flowers, specifically, and find out whether a mathematical concept can be applied to providing better chances of survival for flowers. 


(1) Grigas, A. The Fibonacci Sequence: Its History, Significance, and Manifestations in Nature.

(2) Campbell, S. C. Growing Patterns: Fibonacci Numbers in Nature; Astra Publishing House, 2010.

(3) Adams, R. M.; Hurd, B. H.; Lenhart, S.; Leary, N. Effects of Global Climate Change on Agriculture: An Interpretative Review. Clim Res 1998.

(4) Extend the Season with Resilient Pansies. (accessed 2023-04-13).

(5) Večera, S. 5 Most Beautiful Varieties of Dianthus. A to Z Flowers. (accessed 2023-01-17).

(6) The Duration of Pansies. (accessed 2023-01-17).

(7) Cyclamen - Great Hardy Perennials for the Garden. Plant Delights Nursery. (accessed 2023-01-17).

(8) How Fast Do Petunias Grow? (Getting to Know About Petunias) - Conserve Energy Future. (accessed 2023-01-17).

(9) Growing Berlandiera lyrata: Chocolate Flower. (accessed 2023-01-17).

(10) Explanation and list of short-lived, long-lived, summer dormant perennials and biennials. Garden Artisans, LLC. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(11) How to Grow Violas in a Home Garden. The Spruce. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(12) Lobularia maritima (Alyssum, Sweet Alyssum) | North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox. (accessed 2023-01-17).

(13) Lisa. Kalanchoe Lifespan: A Look Into the Life Cycle. The Practical Planter. (accessed 2023-01-17).

(14) Schiller, N. How to Grow and Care for Stock Flowers (Matthiola incana). Gardener’s Path. (accessed 2023-01-17).

(15) Amaryllis Legends and Fun Facts | Gardener’s Supply. (accessed 2023-01-17).

(16) Oenothera biennis (Common evening-primrose) | Native Plants of North America. (accessed 2023-01-17).

(17) Celandine Poppy (Stylophorum diphyllum). (accessed 2023-03-08).

(18) 40.4A: Pollination and Fertilization - Biology LibreTexts. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(19) Top 8 Pollinators. Stone Pier Press. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(20) FraserPlateau.2019.FINAL.Pdf. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(21) All About Jolt! Dianthus Plants. Adams Fairacre Farms. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(22) Presley, E. Plants and Their Pollinators:

(23) Flowers That Do Not Attract Bees. Garden Guides. (accessed 2023-02-14).

(24) Fearless flowers: Cyclamen coum. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(25) Do Petunias Attract Bees?. Home Guides | SF Gate. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(26) Berlandiera Lyrata, The Chocolate Flower - Epic Gardening. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(27) 10 Flowers That Attract Bees to Your Yard - The Homespun Hydrangea. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(28) Plants that Attract Butterflies: Best Flowers for Butterflies | The Old Farmer’s Almanac. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(29) Haag, B. Support pollinators with cheerful viola flowers: University of Illinois Extension. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(30) How to Plant, Grow, and Care For Pansies. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(31) Kalanchoe – Nature’s Half Acre. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(32) Reesav. Kalanchoe Flower: Everything you Need to Know. Plants Craze. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(33) Sweet Alyssum, Lobularia maritima. Wisconsin Horticulture. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(34) Botanist, A. W. A Wandering Botanist: Plant Story--Amaryllis, well, actually Hippeastrum. A Wandering Botanist. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(35) Common evening-primrose | The Wildlife Trusts. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(36) Evening Primrose by any Other Name is a Moth Plant. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(37) Celandine Poppy, Stylophorum diphyllum. Wisconsin Horticulture. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(38) Stylophorum diphyllum (Celandine Poppy) - Quart Super Plugs. GreenTec Nursery. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(39) Shoot. Berlandiera lyrata Chocolate daisy Lyreleaf greeneyes Chocolate flower Green-eyed lyre leaf Care Plant Varieties & Pruning Advice. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(40) Speake, C. Growing Pansies - How to Grow and Care For Pansy Flowers. The Gardening Cook. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(41) Sweet William: Plant Care & Growing Guide. The Spruce. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(42) Viola pubescens (Butter Yellow Beauty, Common Yellow Violet, Downy Violet, Downy Yellow Violet, Hairy Yellow Forest Violet, Hairy Yellow Violet, Smooth Yellow Violet, Violets) | North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(43) Varga, E. A Surprise Cross Pollination Experiment. Eva Varga. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(44) Buckner, H. How to Grow Amaryllis from Seed | Gardener’s Path. Gardener’s Path. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(45) Jay, S. Alyssum: Growing The Colorful Carpet Flower. Epic Gardening. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(46) Matthiola incana (L.) W.T. Aiton | Species. India Biodiversity Portal. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(47) Pink Evening Primrose Plant: Plant Care & Growing Guide. The Spruce. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(48) Stylophorum diphyllum #1 (Wood Poppy). Scioto Gardens Nursery. (accessed 2023-03-08).

(49) Smith, G. F.; Shtein, R.; Klein, D.-P.; Parihar, B.; Almeida, A.; Rodewald, S.; Kadereit, G. Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae): A Review of Known and Newly Recorded Strategies. Haseltonia 2022, 28 (1), 2–20.

(50) Arid Land - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (accessed 2023-02-14).

(51) Drylands: much more than their name suggests. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (accessed 2023-02-14).

(52) Arable Land by Country 2023. (accessed 2023-02-14).

(53) UNCCD Bullets.Pdf. (accessed 2023-02-14).

(54) vcm-dev. How to Use Hardiness Zone Information. VCM Texas. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(55) Chocolate Flower. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(56) Chocolate flower (Berlandiera lyrata) Flower, Leaf, Care, Uses. PictureThis. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(57) Buy Dianthus Plants Online | Wholesale Nursery. Wholesale Nursery Co. (accessed 2023-03-21).

(58) Sweet william Care (Watering, Fertilize, Pruning, Propagation). PictureThis. (accessed 2023-03-21).

(59) Purple cyclamen Care (Watering, Fertilize, Pruning, Propagation). PictureThis. (accessed 2023-03-21).

(60) Finch, C. R. Pansies and cyclamen color a winter garden. mySA. (accessed 2023-03-21).

(61) Care Of Hardy Cyclamen - Planting Hardy Cyclamen Bulbs Outdoors. Gardening Know How. (accessed 2023-03-21).

(62) Plant Cyclamen and Hellebores for Winter Color in the Garden. ANR Blogs. (accessed 2023-03-21).

(63) Try cyclamen for winter color. Dallas News. (accessed 2023-03-21).

(64) Hardy Cyclamen | Breck’s. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(65) Violet wild petunia Care (Watering, Fertilize, Pruning, Propagation). PictureThis. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(66) Ruellia nudiflora (Violet ruellia) | Native Plants of North America. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(67) About Wild Petunia - Information For Growing Ruellia Flowers. Gardening Know How. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(68) Sweet violet (Viola odorata) Flower, Leaf, Care, Uses. PictureThis. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(69) Johnny jump up (Viola tricolor) Flower, Leaf, Care, Uses. PictureThis. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(70) Viola tricolor - How to grow & care. Grow Plants. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(71) Spencer, J. Drought-Tolerant Ground Covers With Showy Flowers. Dengarden. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(72) Sweet alyssum Care (Watering, Fertilize, Pruning, Propagation). PictureThis. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(73) Flaming katy Care (Watering, Fertilize, Pruning, Propagation). PictureThis. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(74) Kennedy, R. How to Grow Flaming Katy Kalanchoe | Gardener’s Path. Gardener’s Path. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(75) How to Care for Kalanchoe—and Get the Most Vibrant Blooms. Real Simple. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(76) Can Kalanchoe Plants Be Planted Outdoors?. Home Guides | SF Gate. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(77) How To Plant, Grow, and Care for Kalanchoe. Lula’s Garden. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(78) Tenweeks stock Care (Watering, Fertilize, Pruning, Propagation). PictureThis. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(79) Showy Pink Evening Primrose. High Country Gardens. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(80) Pinkladies “Rosea” (Oenothera speciosa ’Rosea’) Flower, Leaf, Care, Uses. PictureThis. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(81) Heber, G. How to Grow Evening Primrose, A Triple-Duty Plant | Gardener’s Path. Gardener’s Path. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(82) Club, T. D. Pink Evening Primrose. The Diggers Club. (accessed 2023-04-04).

(83) Resurrection lily Care (Watering, Fertilize, Pruning, Propagation). PictureThis. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(84) Amaryllis - Citizendium. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(85) Hardy Amaryllis Bulb (Hippeastrum x johnsonii) - 1 bulb. The Southern Bulb Co. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(86) Great Plant Picks: Unbeatable Plants for the Maritime Northwest Garden. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(87) Celandine Poppy, Stylophorum diphyllum. Wisconsin Horticulture. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(88) Antosh, G. Growing Celandine Poppy: Learn Stylophorum Diphyllum Care. Plant Care Today. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(89) Plant Profile: Wood Poppy. Arcadia Natives. (accessed 2023-03-22).

(90) Singer, R. B.; Koehler, S. Notes on the Pollination Biology of Notylia Nemorosa (Orchidaceae): Do Pollinators Necessarily Promote Cross Pollination? J. Plant Res. 2003, 116 (1), 19–25.

(91) Fruit | Definition, Description, Types, Examples, & Facts | Britannica. (accessed 2023-04-05).

(92) Climate Change: Global Temperature | NOAA (accessed 2023-04-05).