Preprint / Version 1

EMS in the USA: Challenges, Disparities, and the Quest for Global Solutions


  • Ruihan Sun The High School Affiliated to Renmin University of China



EMS system, Medical innovation, COVID-19 pandemic


With 1.05 million personnel responding to 42.6 million calls annually, the United States Emergency Medical Services (EMS) plays a vital role in the healthcare industry, serving almost every community in the country. However, the system faces challenges such as long response time, urban-rural outcome variations, and large ambulance bills, which are exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examines EMS systems across the world, considering  innovations that could potentially aid the United States in improving its ability to provide emergency care. The included articles are categorized into 4 groups based on their proposed innovation, which include innovations in personnel, systems-level innovations, metrics of successful EMS, and technological innovations. The main innovations from each article are synthesized to construct recommendations for the United States to improve the functioning of its EMS systems. In conclusion, this review suggests incorporating laypeople in the EMS system, establishing special emergency groups, applying technological innovations, and performing an investigation of the cost of EMS.


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